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Mechanisms of Resistance to Antimicrobial Drugs in Pathogenic Gram-Positive Cocci

[ Vol. 10 , Issue. 10 ]

Author(s):

B. Mlynarczyk, A. Mlynarczyk, M. Kmera-Muszynska, S. Majewski and G. Mlynarczyk   Pages 928 - 937 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Many species of Gram-positive cocci are pathogenic. The most important are staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. Widespread usage of antibiotics was the main cause for the appearance and spread of resistance to almost all antimicrobials. The occurrence, mechanisms, and genetic background of resistance to antimicrobial drugs other than betalactams and glycopeptides among pathogenic staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci are discussed in the text. Well-established agents (such as macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, mupirocin, chloramphenicol) as well as new agents (linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristine/dalfopristine, ratapamulin, tigecycline, iclaprim and new generations of quinolones) are considered.

Keywords:

Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, antibiotic resistance, plasmids, transposons

Affiliation:

Department of Medical Microbiology, Chalubinskiego 5, 02-004 Warsaw, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.



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