Alvaro Marin-Hernandez, Juan C. Gallardo-Perez, Stephen J. Ralph, Sara Rodriguez-Enriquez and Rafael Moreno-Sanchez Pages 1084 - 1101 ( 18 )
To develop new and more efficient anti-cancer strategies it will be important to characterize the products of transcription factor activity essential for tumorigenesis. One such factor is hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a transcription factor induced by low oxygen conditions and found in high levels in malignant solid tumors, but not in normal tissues or slow-growing tumors. In fast-growing tumors, HIF-1α is involved in the activation of numerous cellular processes including resistance against apoptosis, over-expression of drug efflux membrane pumps, vascular remodeling and angiogenesis as well as metastasis. In cancer cells, HIF-1α induces over-expression and increased activity of several glycolytic protein isoforms that differ from those found in non-malignant cells, including transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3) and enzymes (HKI, HKII, PFK-L, ALD-A, ALD-C, PGK1, ENO-α, PYK-M2, LDH-A, PFKFB-3). The enhanced tumor glycolytic flux triggered by HIF-1α also involves changes in the kinetic patterns of expressed isoforms of key glycolytic enzymes. The HIF-1α induced isoforms provide cancer cells with reduced sensitivity to physiological inhibitors, lower affinity for products and higher catalytic capacity (Vmaxf) in forward reactions because of marked over-expression compared to those isoforms expressed in normal tissues. Some of the HIF1α-induced glycolytic isoforms also participate in survival pathways, including transcriptional activation of H2B histone (by LDH-A), inhibition of apoptosis (by HKII) and promotion of cell migration (by ENO-α). HIF-1α action may also modulate mitochondrial function and oxygen consumption by inactivating the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in some tumor types, or by modulating cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 expression to increase oxidative phosphorylation in other cancer cell lines. In this review, the roles of HIF-1α and HIF1α- induced glycolytic enzymes are examined and it is concluded that targeting the HIF1α-induced glucose transporter and hexokinase, important to glycolytic flux control, might provide better therapeutic targets for inhibiting tumor growth and progression than targeting HIF1α itself.
Glucose transporters, hexokinases, HIF-1α, glycolysis, mitochondria, glycolytic inhibitors, mitochondrial inhibitors
Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Departamento de Bioquimica, Juan Badiano No. 1, Seccion XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico D.F. 14080, Mexico.