Robert Gosik and Krzysztof Danel* Pages 3052 - 3061 ( 10 )
It is estimated that by 2040, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) will be the 5th main cause of global deaths. It has been suggested that hyperphosphatemia is among the main factors leading to the increased risk of death. This review focuses on potential and currently used Phosphate Binders (PB). Aluminum hydroxide is presently not recommended due to potential aluminum toxicity. Calciumcontaining phosphate binders (CCPB) can cause calcium overload, resulting in hypercalcemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Magnesium and calcium complexes were suggested to be as effective as sevelamer in the reduction of serum phosphate, with the potential to slow down the process of calcification. However, limited studies have been conducted in this area. Although sevelamer seemed to have a positive influence on cardiovascular calcification and arterial stiffness, its influence on mortality was unclear. Sevelamer crystal accumulation in the Gastrointestinal tract (GI) can cause gastrointestinal bleeding. Lanthanum carbonate seemed to lower all-cause mortality and reduce the chance of hypercalcemia, even though a deposit in the GI tract was observed. Colestilan, like sevelamer, reduced LDL cholesterol. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide had a lower pill burden than other PBs and it seemed to reduce serum FGF-23. Ferric citrate improved parameters that are related to anemia but can cause iron overload. Bixalomer appeared to have fewer gastrointestinal side effects than sevelamer. Nano-lanthanum hydroxide and SBR759 may have an interesting future as PBs. In conclusion, the development of new PBs should also take into consideration their potential to function as protection modifiers.
Chronic kidney disease, hyperphosphatemia, phosphate binders, non-calcium PBs, efficacy, alternative.
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, Kraków, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, Kraków