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Advancement of Natural Compounds as Anti-Rheumatoid Arthritis Agents: A Focus on Their Mechanism of Actions

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 19 ]

Author(s):

Huanghe Yu, Yixing Qiu, Shumaila Tasneem, Muhammad Daniyal, Bin Li, Xiong Cai, Atta-ur Rahman and Wei Wang*   Pages 2957 - 2975 ( 19 )

Abstract:


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation and bone destruction. RA is associated with high incidence of disability worldwide. Although several anti-RA agents are available in the market, clinical use of these drugs is limited due to their severe side effects. Several studies are currently exploring new anti-rheumatic drugs which are more effective and have fewer side effects. Notably, natural products with anti-RA effect have been identified and studies have reported the underlying molecular mechanisms of action of the novel and known compounds. This review explored naturally occurring known and novel compounds that have anti-RA activity. Further, the compounds are classified based on their molecular mechanisms of action as anti-RA agents. In addition, the safety of compounds from natural sources is compared with that of conventional drugs. In addition, clinical trials for anti-RA compounds isolated from natural plant sources were summarized in this manuscript.

Keywords:

Rheumatoid arthritis, natural compound, natural plant, mechanisms of action, anti-inflammation, efficacy and safety.

Affiliation:

TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation and Development International Laboratory, Academician Atta-ur-Rahman Belt and Road Traditional Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation and Development International Laboratory, Academician Atta-ur-Rahman Belt and Road Traditional Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation and Development International Laboratory, Academician Atta-ur-Rahman Belt and Road Traditional Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation and Development International Laboratory, Academician Atta-ur-Rahman Belt and Road Traditional Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation and Development International Laboratory, Academician Atta-ur-Rahman Belt and Road Traditional Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Institute of Innovation and Applied Research in Chinese Medicine, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan410208, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation and Development International Laboratory, Academician Atta-ur-Rahman Belt and Road Traditional Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha



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