Shilpi Srivastava, Zeba Usmani, Atanas G. Atanasov, Vinod Kumar Singh, Nagendra Pratap Singh, Ahmed M. Abdel-Azeem, Ram Prasad, Govind Gupta, Minaxi Sharma* and Atul Bhargava* Pages 245 - 265 ( 21 )
Metal nanoparticles are nanosized entities with dimensions of 1-100 nm that are increasingly in demand due to applications in diverse fields like electronics, sensing, environmental remediation, oil recovery and drug delivery. Metal nanoparticles possess large surface energy and properties different from bulk materials due to their small size, large surface area with free dangling bonds and higher reactivity. High cost and pernicious effects associated with the chemical and physical methods of nanoparticle synthesis are gradually paving the way for biological methods due to their eco-friendly nature. Considering the vast potentiality of microbes and plants as sources, biological synthesis can serve as a green technique for the synthesis of nanoparticles as an alternative to conventional methods. A number of reviews are available on green synthesis of nanoparticles but few have focused on covering the entire biological agents in this process. Therefore present paper describes the use of various living organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae, bryophytes and tracheophytes in the biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles, the mechanisms involved and the advantages associated therein.
Metal nanoparticles, green nanotechnology, bacteria, fungi, lower plants, angiosperms.
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus, Lucknow, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, K.S. Saket P.G. College, Ayodhya, K.S. Saket P.G. College, Ayodhya, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, University of Suez Canal, Ismailia, Department of Botany, Mahatma Gandhi Central University, Motihari, Bihar, Sage School of Agriculture, Sage University, Bhopal, Department of Food Technology, Akal College of Agriculture, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, Department of Botany, Mahatma Gandhi Central University, Motihari, Bihar