Hiwa M. Ahmed*, Seyed Nabavi and Sahar Behzad Pages 302 - 313 ( 12 )
Natural products and medicinal plants have played a vital role in providing healthcare and ensuring well-being for many civilizations since antiquity. It is estimated that around 50% of drugs in the market have a natural product origin especially medicinal plants and herbal drugs, animals, fungi, and marine organisms. Some of these biologically active constituents of extracts have low absorption and distribution which, as a result, lead to loss of bioavailability and efficacy and might hamper their applications in the clinic. To overcome these impediments for the formulation of herbal drugs, food supplements, and essential oils, several nanomedical approaches such as liposomes, microemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), liquid crystal systems (LC), and precursor systems for liquid crystals (PSLCs) have been proposed. Nanoparticles have been used to modify and ameliorate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of different drugs, thus incorporating biotechnological systems may be useful to enhance the bioavailability and bioactivity of herbal drug formulations. Consequently, essential for any natural compounds is the extent of its absorption after being ingested and its ability to be distributed in various tissues or organs of the body. The present review article aims to give an overview of the recent advancements in developing herbal drug formulations based on nanoparticle technologies.
Bioavailability, bioactivity, nanomedicine, phytomedicine, drug delivery, natural products.
Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Slemani, Kurdistan Region, Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran