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A Review on Vitamin E Natural Analogues and on the Design of Synthetic Vitamin E Derivatives as Cytoprotective Agents

Author(s):

Panagiotis Theodosis-Nobelos, Georgios Papagiouvannis and Eleni A. Rekka*   Pages 1 - 13 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Vitamin E, essential for human health, is widely used worldwide for therapeutic or dietary reasons. The differences in the metabolism and excretion of the multiple vitamin E forms are presented in this review. The important steps that influence the kinetics of each form and the distribution and processing of vitamin E forms by the liver are considered. The antioxidant as well as non-antioxidant properties of vitamin E forms are discussed. Finally, synthetic tocopherol and trolox derivatives, based on the design of multitarget directed compounds, are reviewed. It is demonstrated that selected derivatization of vitamin E or trolox structures can produce improved antioxidants, agents against cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords:

Vitamin E, Tocopherols, Tocotrienols, Metabolism, Transport, Antioxidants, Trolox, Synthetic analogues

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124



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