Zeba Firdaus and Tryambak Deo Singh* Pages 35 - 57 ( 23 )
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-associated nervous system disorder and a leading cause of dementia worldwide. Clinically, it is described by cognitive impairment and pathophysiologically by deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain and neurodegeneration. This article reviews the pathophysiology, course of neuronal degeneration, and the various possible hypothesis of AD progression. These hypotheses include amyloid cascade, tau hyperphosphorylation, cholinergic disruption, metal dysregulation, vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. There is an exponential increase in the occurrence of AD in the recent few years that indicate an urgent need to develop some effective treatment. Currently, only 2 classes of drugs are available for AD treatment, namely acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and NMDA receptor antagonist. Since AD is a complex neurological disorder and these drugs use a single target approach, alternatives are needed due to limited effectiveness and unpleasant side-effects of these drugs. Currently, plants have been used for drug development research especially because of their multiple sites of action and fewer side effects. Uses of some herbs and phytoconstituents for the management of neuronal disorders like AD have been documented in this article. Phytochemical screening of these plants shows the presence of many beneficial constituents like flavonoids, triterpenes, alkaloids, sterols, polyphenols, and tannins. These compounds show a wide array of pharmacological activities, such as anti-amyloidogenic, anticholinesterase, and antioxidants. This article summarizes the present understanding of AD progression and gathers biochemical evidence from various works on natural products that can be useful in the management of this disease.
Alzheimer`s disease (AD), Amyloid-β (Aβ), Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), Neuroinflammation, Medicinal Plants, Terpenes.
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221005, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221005