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Association of Zinc and Copper Status with Cardiovascular Diseases and their Assessment Methods: A Review Study

Author(s):

Mahsa Malekahmadi, Safieh Firouzi, Majid Rezayi*, Hamideh Qazizadeh, Golnaz Ranjbar, Gordon A. Ferns and Majid Ghayour Mobarhan   Pages 1 - 12 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and financial losses and has a high prevalence across the world. Several studies have investigated the association between various CVD types with zinc and copper status as the essential minerals for the human body, proposing contradictory and similar results. This narrative review aimed to survey the correlations between zinc and copper status in the human body and some risk factors of CVD, as well as the assessment methods of zinc and copper status in the human body. According to the reviewed articles, zinc and copper deficiency may increase the risk of coronary heart disease, valvular regurgitation, and myocardial lesions, cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, it could lead to the expanded mitochondrial compartments of the heart, acute and chronic heart failure, and elevation of inflammation markers, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6. Two methods are primarily used for the assessment of zinc and copper in the human body, including the direct method (measurement of their concentrations) and indirect method (determining the activity of zinc- and copper-containing enzymes). Both these methods are considered reliable for the assessment of the zinc and copper levels in healthy individuals. Serum or plasma levels of these elements are also commonly used for the assessment of the correlation between the zinc and copper status and CVD. But, which one is a more accurate indicator in relation to CVD is not yet clear, therefore further studies are required in this field.

Keywords:

Zinc, copper, cardiovascular disease, assessment, serum, plasma.

Affiliation:

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Medical Toxicology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Division of Medical Education, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9PH, Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad



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