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Triterpenoid and Saponin Rich Phytolacca dodecandra L’Herit (Endod): A Review on Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 1 ]


Kebede Taye Desta* and A.M. Abd El-Aty*   Pages 23 - 34 ( 12 )


Phytolacca dodecandra L’Herit (Endod) is the most extensively studied plant among 35 known species in the genus Phytolacca (Family: Phytolaccaceae). The plant has been used as a viable treatment for various ailments, such as malaria, rabies, ascariasis, and skin disorders, in many parts of Africa. In Ethiopia, the dried and powdered Endod berries have been used for a long period of time as a detergent to clean clothes. Since the discovery of the molluscicidal activities of its berries more than five decades ago, P. dodecandra has been a research focus worldwide and several phytochemicals mainly of triterpenoids and saponins were reported. Additionally, various biological activities, including larvicidal, insecticidal, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities of its isolated compounds and crude extracts were investigated. Furthermore, some of the findings from pharmacological and phytochemical investigations were patented to be used in various medicinal formulations. The plant is still the subject of many investigations and hence, a thorough up-to-date review is required to provide comprehensive information needed for future exploitation of the plant. In this review, the phytochemical compositions and pharmacological activities are comprehensively addressed and discussed in details.


Endod, pharmacology, phytochemical, Phytolacca dodecandra, triterpenoids, saponins, schistosomiasis.


Department of Applied Chemistry College of Applied Natural Sciences, Adama Science and Technology University, P.O. Box: 1888, Adama, State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, College of Food Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Science, Jinan 250353

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