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Synthesis, Characterization, Anti-proliferative Evaluation, and DNA Flow Cytometry Analysis of Some 2-Thiohydantoin derivatives

Author(s):

Heba A. Elhady* and Hossa F. Al‑Shareef   Pages 1 - 13 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Background and Objective: Due to the well-documented anti-proliferative activity of 2-thiohydantoin incorporated with pyrazole, oxadiazole, quinazoline, urea, β‑naphthyl carbamate and Schiff bases they are noteworthy in pharmaceutical chemistry.

Methods: An efficient approach for the synthesis of a novel series of 2-thiohydantoin derivatives incorporated with pyrazole and oxadiazole has proceeded via the reaction of the acyl hydrazide with chalcones and/or triethyl orthoformate. Schiff bases were synthesized by the reaction of the acyl hydrazide with different aromatic aldehydes. Also, Curtius rearrangement was applied to the acyl azide to obtain the urea derivative, quinazoline derivative, and carbamate derivative.

Results: The synthesized compounds structures were discussed and confirmed depending on their spectral data. The anticancer activity of these heterocyclic compounds was evaluated against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), where they showed variable activity. Compound 5d found to has a superior anticancer activity, where it has (IC50 = 2.07 ± 0.13 µg / mL) in comparison with the reference drug doxorubicin that has (IC50 = 2.79 ± 0.07 µg / mL). Then compound 5d subjected to further studies such as cell cycle analysis and apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by the up-regulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2, and the increase of the caspase 3/7percentage.

Conclusion: Insertion of pyrazole, oxadiazole and, quinazoline moieties with 2-thiohydantoin moiety led to the enhancement of its anti-proliferative activity. Hence they can be used as anticancer agents.

Keywords:

2-Thiohydantoin, Urea, carbamate, pyrazole, quinazoline, MCF-7, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, caspase 3/7

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), P.O. box 11754, Youssef Abbas Str., Cairo, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, P. O. Box 13401, Makkah 21955



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