Xin Fu, Yan-shu Li, Jun Zhao, Lu-lu Yu, Rong-guang Luo, Qing-rong Liang and Qun Tang* Pages 239 - 251 ( 13 )
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has remarkably enhanced therapeutic efficacy in treating both newly diagnosed and relapsed patients suffering from Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL). Unfortunately, whether as a single agent, component of combined chemotherapy, or as a chemosensitizer or radiosensitizer combined with interventional therapy/radiotherapy, it did not benefit treatment of solid tumor (liver cancer, bladder cancer, glioma, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma) as seen from the clinical trials reported from the published journals or FDA-approved trials in the past decades. The clinical outcome failed to live up to our expectations, which was attributed to severe systemic toxicity and inappropriate pharmacokinetic such as low delivery efficiency and rapid renal elimination. Nanomedicine is designed to fuel up pharmaceuticals and polish off adverse effects by the moderation of their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Nevertheless, quite a few nanodrugs (such as Doxil, Abraxane) were approved to be used clinically, and “from bench to bedside” it seems to be no easy way for most of them, such as nano-ATO. Encapsulating ATO into several types of nano-vehicles (liposome, polymer micelle, porous silicon, etc.), nano-TO can improve pharmacokinetic and become a prominent candidate to penetrate into tumor tissue, but so far no nano- ATO clinical trials have been approved around the world. On summarizing the clinical trials of ATO on solid tumor and preclinical study of nano-ATO, it is believed there is still a chance for ATO to play a critical co-helper in a comprehensive therapy to fight with solid tumor.
Arsenic trioxide, solid tumor, nanomedicine, drug delivery, pharmacokinetics, comprehensive therapy.
Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Supervision and Inspection Center for Medical Devices, Nanchang, Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Nanchang University, Nanchang