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Cofilin/Actin Rod Formation by Dysregulation of Cofilin-1 Activity as a Central Initial Step in Neurodegeneration

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Patricia Schonhofen, Liana Marengo de Medeiros, Carolina Piletti Chatain, Ivi Juliana Bristot and Fabio Klamt   Pages 393 - 400 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Cofilin-1 protein, which main function is to regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics, appears to be involved with many steps in the neurotoxicity processes found in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). As the dynamics of actin filaments play a major role in several cellular processes, the primary involvement of cofilin-1 dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of these disorders may be related to a cytoskeleton stress. However, recently cofilin-1 has also been related to other biological processes such as cell death by apoptosis. In both cases, ATP depletion associated with the presence of reactive species and other stressors regulate cofilin-1 by inducing the formation of aggregates composed primarily by actin and cofilin-1, known as cofilin/actin rods. These structures seem to be formed initially as a neuroprotective response to mitochondrial damage; but once the stressor persists they are thought to act as inducers of further impairments and loss of neuronal functions. Therefore, here we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge about the central role of cofilin/actin rods formation, where its dysregulation and malfunction might be the trigger to neurodegeneration.

Keywords:

Cofilin-1, cofilin/actin rods, ATP depletion, neurodegeneration, ROS.

Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry (ICBS), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 2600 Ramiro Barcelos St, Porto Alegre (RS) Brazil 90035-003.



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