Qun Qian, Zhenhua Zang, Yang Chen, Weiqi Tong and Hegui Gong Pages 802 - 813 ( 12 )
Cross-coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes leading to Heck-type and addition products is summarized. The development of Heck reaction with aliphatic halides although has made significant progress in the past decade and particularly recently, it was much less explored in comparison with the aryl halides. The use of Ni- and Co-catalyzed protocols allowed efficient Heck coupling of activated and unactivated alkenes with 1o, 2o and 3o alkyl halides. In addition, radical conjugate addition to activated alkenes has become a well-established method that has led to efficient construction of many natural products. The utilization of Ni- and Co-catalyzed strategies would avoid toxic tin reagents, and therefore worth exploring. The recent development of Ni- and Co-catalyzed addition of alkyl halides to alkenes displays much improved reactivity and functional group tolerance. In this mini-review, we also attempt to overview the mechanisms that are proposed in the reactions, aiming at providing insight into the nickel and cobalt-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes.
Alkyl halides, Heck reactions, conjugate radical addition, alkenes, nickel-catalyzed, cobalt-catalyzed
Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, 99-Shang-Da Road, Shanghai 200444, China.