Selvatici Rita, Siniscalchi Anna and Spisani Susanna Pages 553 - 564 ( 12 )
Recently, interest in small peptide molecules as potential drug candidates has revived. In this review, two series of synthetic peptides and their selective effects on the inflammatory response have been described, focusing on the intracellular pathways involved and on their therapeutic potential. A series of FDLFDLF analogs has been synthesized, including either N- t-Boc or different N-ureido substituents. The free acid derivatives as they are good candidates as antiinflammatory drugs are able to antagonize the multiple neutrophil functions evoked by N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-Lphenylalanine (fMLF), i.e. chemotaxis, superoxide anion production and lysozyme release. Their methyl-ester derivatives are ineffective. The second series of peptides derives from the endogenous protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor PKI55, a 55-amino acid protein, whose synthesis is induced by PKC activation, so that a feedback loop of inhibition is established. In vitro experiments showed that PKI55 inhibits recombinant PKC isoforms α, β1, β2, γ, δ, ζ, ε; to identify the minimal amino acid sequence of PKI55 protein maintaining the inhibitory effects on PKC, peptides derived from both C- and N-terminal sequences have been synthesized. The N-terminal peptides 5 (MLYKLHDVCRQLWFSC), 8 (CRQLWFSC) and 9 (CRQLW), that in human neutrophils retain the inhibitory activity on PKC, decrease the chemotaxis, and, in mice, display anti-inflammatory and analgesic action, after both central and peripheral administration of very low doses. Furthermore, the peptide 5 shows neuroprotective activity in a model of cerebral ischemia in vitro, favouring the recovery of synaptic function. These findings suggest interesting possible therapeutic applications for these peptides.
Chemotaxis, formylpeptide receptor, inflammation, lysozyme release, neuroprotection, protein kinase C inhibition, superoxide anion, synthetic peptides
Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Diagnostica, Sezione di Genetica Medica; Italy.